Galactic Bloodshed

Almost the ultimate 4X game, but the bugs, OMG the bugs!


Today you can hardly avoid the “open source” love fest. It’s such a hot topic that it’s made its way into the popular press and become a new geek credo complete with its own t-shirts. But before the concept became a political movement, many programs in the Unix world were open source without anyone giving it a second thought. Galactic Bloodshed is one such example.

Galactic Bloodshed first started in the late 1980’s, invented by a bunch of Unix hacks in the US. Unix was primarily a university phenomenon at the time, and this was the root of the biggest problems with the development of GB: eventually, all the key developers would move onto a real job and development would sort of peter out.

The first versions were typically played by small “in groups”, typically in the US. This may have been a blessing in disguise, as the code was terribly buggy. Admins were advised to reset the program every few days to stop it from eating up all the memory on the machine, and even then other bugs tended to mangle the database before the end of the game – ending the game. There’s still some listings of the games that did make it, there’s maybe 10 or so per server.

The GB+ effort started to address the problems in the original, as well as take it in some new directions. Once again the principle developers moved on about when the game was half completed, leaving it about where it started in terms of the number of bugs. There might be a lesson in software development in there, if you have two goals, pick one to start with.

Another version, HAP is mentioned in several online docs, but information on the version is basically non-existant.

The last, and best, version of GB is the HUT. The HUT was started by a group of Finnish players (there’s a surprising number of them) who got tired of the dying servers and decided to write their own version.

At the time there were bunch of GB-mad Finns who happened to study at the Helsinki Univ. of Tech. For a few years we just played in games hosted by other people, mainly in USA or Central Europe. Those games were prone to die sooner or later because of database corruption. A couple of years ago all of the experienced deities [sysops] had quit (graduated or got a real job) and there were no (playable) games running. So we decided to start hosting our own games.

The problem at the beginning was that we found only very old sources for GB and those versions lacked features and had lots of bugs. So we decided to iron out all critical bugs and to implement lacking features and also to add some new ones (that’s features not bugs…). I think it took about one year to fix and play test the game. Anyhow, I believe it was most stable and advanced version of GB at the time. The sad thing was that after that year all of us had lost interest in developing the game further.

– Kari Seppanen

So after a time “the curse of GB” struck down even the mighty HUT, and the game is no longer active on the ‘net.

The Game

Type: Empire-building
Viewpoint: God-view
Time: Effort based
Synopsis: Take over the galaxy in a race to outproduce your neighbours. Combine the good points of your race with those of another to produce a team that can’t be beat.

GB is unlike most games of its ilk in a number of ways. The high-level picture is the same – take over planets and win – but the specifics are different in almost every way you can think of.

Consider getting the game set up. First off one person has to be the referee for the game, the deity. They get to set up the game – select a map and initial conditions, set up the players on their home planets, and keep the game running. The sad thing is that means the person who takes the time to set up the game can’t even play it – they have too much insider info.

I consider this to be the game’s single most serious flaw. If you’re interested in the game enough to put up a server, aren’t you going to want to play the game? And if you want to play the game, doesn’t that mean you don’t want to run it? Games shouldn’t be this hostile to their biggest fans!

The basic engine is meant to be played with a telnet terminal – all they had in the late 80’s – but it’s design allowed clients to be built for it that made everything a lot easier. The major client was GBII, hardly an improvement over Telnet UI-wise, but there was also an effort to produce a Java client.

As a result of having to work from a terminal, the game ends up being increadibly modal. Many of the commands have to be “prefixed” by moving to the correct location first. For instance, you might have a bunch of planets, so in order to give orders to one particular planet the game makes you change scope to the one you were interested in. This is an important part of the UI, and the same basic system is then used to control practically everything in the game, ships, planets, even as far down as factories on the planets.

Race design is increadibly complex, at least as complex as the system in MOO:II, although in different ways. Like MOO it uses a point system to limit the abilities of the race and attempt to create a level playing field, but this isn’t always easy.

To start off there are two major classes of races: ‘normal’ like us, and ‘mesomorph’ who can take over other living bodies in Invasion of the Body Snatchers fashion. The former pays less for IQ and various “learning” scores, while the later have the advantage of being able to more easily bump up the combat and production skills. Now add to this distinction the full range of attributes:

Metabolism is basically how fast your race works. Higher met means that any given population will produce more resources from a given ‘sector’ per ‘update’, and it also means they will increase the ‘efficiency’ of a sector more quickly.
The growth rate of a race’s technology is governed by the race’s IQ, every update you’ll gain IQ/100 in ‘tech levels’.
The weight of the average member of your race. Higher masses cost more to move.
Planet Type
The planet type determines your home sector type and the costs of settling other sector types.
List of Sector Types with %
This is your ability to live on sectors of that type, as well as a direct multiplier (percent) of your chance to gain efficiency in sectors or that type you are living in each update.
The combat strength of your race.
# of Sexes
This is the minimum number of people you need in a sector in order to reproduce. Having 1 sex makes setting up colonies a little easier.
Birth Rate
How quickly the population in a sector will converge on the max pop for that sector type. Perhaps oddly named.
The chance that the fertility in a sector will raise by 1 each update. The maximum population in a sector is based on your birth rate, the efficiency of the sector (1-100), the fertility of the sector (1-100), the planetary compatability (temp/atmosphere), and your % compatibility with the sector type.
How much your people tend to spill out of sectors as they fill up with population. Higher values mean that your race will fill up multi-sector planets on their own.
Turing on pods makes your race a meso. Pods are small ships that can be built directly from a planets surface (no factories needed) and sent off to ‘infect’ other planets. When a pod enters a solar system it has a chance each update to burst and send a seed shooting towards one of the planets in the system (about 1 in 4 succeed).
The ability to absorb your enemy’s population as you fight them. Your birth rate effects how much of the killed population is added to your own. Another meso-only ability.
Collective IQ
If you provide a number here, your race has a hive-mind and it’s IQ is based on it’s total population. The number is the maximum IQ you can get. Any race can use Collective IQ, but when you start the game you have low populations and thus low IQ’s. As a result normals are typically in big trouble if they choose this option, because they need to get some tech before they can move onto other planets – mesos have no such problems because of their pods, and often use this option.

Race setup is so complex that it wasn’t really possible to use a telnet based form. Instead you design your race “on paper” and mail the resulting description in a file back to the deity. As a result the program racegen was created to allow you to play “what if” with your race before choosing the final design for the game. The combination of various types and attributes made race design rather subtle, and one of the traps for the newbies was to get agressive here and end up with a race that was too weak for some reason that wasn’t at all clear when setting it up.

Planets come in a number of basic flavours, and each one was divided into a number of sectors – the larger the planet, the more sectors. I’ve only seen this simple (and realistic) concept in one other game, Pax Imperia.

The sector types were land, water, ice, mountain, desert, forest and “gas”, which was found only on gas giants. Each sector type has different advantages and disadvantages, seemingly at random though. For instance land sectors have good resources, which makes sense, but for some odd reason they also have low fertility. Gas sectors have low resources (makes sense again) but high fertility (???).

The planets come in generalized types (eight in all), they weren’t just a random collection of sectors. For instance “class-m” planets (earth like) would be a mix of land and water, desert were mostly desert with a few mountain and land sectors, and gas giants were completely gas.

Each planet type had a different chance of appearing in the game, the class-m’s were rare for instance, but asteriods were common. Since each planet type had a different number of sectors, some sector types were much more common than others. As you might imagine, gas sectors were very common because even a single gas giant would have a whole bunch of them.

Here’s where the table of sector types was important. By selecting a number of sector types that your race could live on, you could tune the system to allow you to take over the entire surface of your target planet. For instance, choosing class-m as your basic planet wouldn’t seem obvious because they’re rare, but a little tuning of the sector types to add desert and mountain, and your race is able to settle anything even remotely earth-like in size.

We’re talking about a lot of complexity here. Scroll back and look at how long this description is!

Once everyone has sent in their race files, the diety generates a map and picks homeworlds for everyone – the game doesn’t have any logic for picking “good” ones. Then the game starts on the first “turn”. Here too GB is a little different, as it breaks down turns into two types – most games have only one.

The first type, the update, runs everything in the engine. Ships move, pods explode, population grows, etc. The other type is the movement, in which the only thing that happens is that ships move.

By tuning the number of updates to moves you can make a server have seemingly real-time play with ships moving all the time, but still keep the expensive calculations down to a minimum, perhaps once a day. Now your game has “days” and “years” defined by the movements and updates respectively. This strikes me as quite clever, and I’d recommend something similar for future game authors.

Another difference in GB is that the players are limited in their actions by Action Points, or AP‘s. Each star system generates AP’s based on the population in that system and the number of ships, and as well there’s an empire-wide pool of extra points. Pretty much everything you do takes up some of these points, and as a result each system can do only so much.

Unlike the turns system, AP’s seem a bit artificial. Although they are supposed to represent the amount of orders you can give due to government issues, by the time the game is really going you have tonnes to spend anyway. As a system to keep down the amount of commands being entered it doesn’t seem to help much, it allows more commands when you don’t want it – when the game is more complex. I would much prefer a more natural system for this sort of thing.

When the game starts players need to use their AP’s to start developing their homeworld. One of the first things to do is take over other areas of your planet, which you do with the move command. Since this is the first move and there’s pretty much nothing else to spend it on, it’s a good idea to spend all of your AP’s (including the empire stockpile) and cover as much of the planet as possible.

As a result of spreading out the population you’ll also start collecting resources and increasing the efficiency of the sectors. After a few turns you’ll have enough resources and tech to start being able to build ships. Here’s where GB gets a little weird.

To build a ship, you do a build shiptype sector – simple right? The weird part is that the first ship you build is a factory – factories are ships. And here’s where it gets weirder, in order to use that factory you need to “change scope” into the factory, kinda like zooming in. To do this you do a csfactorynumber and then tell it to make something with make type.

But you can’t actually do that yet. Factories start out “damaged” (to represent their building time) so in order to get them built and running you first have to fill it with people and tell them to work. So in all you have to build the factory, then load it, then order it on, then cs into it after it’s fixed up and tell it to make some type of ship and then finally build n of them.


There were a few redeeming features in the ship engine. For one thing the ships were designed using a blueprint system, and they could be modified after building. So if you wanted your shuttles to go faster, you could modify speed 4 and now all shuttles built from then on go a little faster. You could also use the upgrade command to do this to individual ships, but you can imagine that with a lot of ships out there this would get tedious (of course, considering the complexity of actually building a ship, maybe this wasn’t considered a problem).

Overall the concept here is good, you build a factory, set it up to build some sort of ship by sending it the blueprints, and then getting it to build some number of them on order. However the interface to actually doing that is way too complex and time consuming. This portion of the game could use a lot of work, greatly simplifying this system would cut down the tedium without changing the actual detail in the game at all. Of course, being from the Unix world, I’m sure the authors consider this complexity to be a feature!

Once the ships are built you move people into them and send them off to take over other planets. Mesos also have the ability to build pods right away, so they typically start by growing some and shipping them off. As a result mesos usually get their empires up and running quicker, but as a result of their being hive-minds (almost always) their tech development is slower.

Taking over a planet is simple, just land and offload your troops. The relative numbers of people and their fight will determine the outcome from that point. And for meso’s, you just have to show up, the pods will take care of the rest, especially if you have a high absorb.

Ship combat is simplified and based entirely around a single consumable called destruct or just dest, run out of dest and your battleship is a sitting duck.


Galactic Bloodshed Documentation Project is a large site with a number of documents, although they’re not terribly well arranged.

Mathew’s GB page is fairly up to date, with easy to use links to all of the latest versions of the software.

Galactic Bloodshed!, is a pretty basic page, but it includes the FAQ and other help files, as well a collection of links to other GB pages.


13 thoughts on “Galactic Bloodshed

  1. mark storer

    Well that’s a blast from the past. Thanks for writing that up.

    By the way “HAP” stood for Heuristic Astronomy Project.

  2. Bob J

    I remember the day that GvC (one of the enthusiastic developers) told me there is a new protocol, called HTTP. It’s kind of like “Do you know where you were when Kennedy was shot?” … “Do you know where you were when HTTP was announced?” Most of the early development was pre-HTTP, and certainly before things like ssh. I remember learning how to use VT100 terminal commands to position the cursor anywhere on the screen and even make those randomly placed characters bold or blink. I told GvC and he added that feature to make it more “visual”, adding a great deal to the visual appeal of the game. Ships could then very slowly (period of days) move across the screen as tiny blinking characters. While he was doing that I was writing a fake login screen program for VAX to capture everyone’s passwords, for fun. Now look where I am.

  3. Kari Seppanen

    For some odd reason I happened to google for “galactic bloodshed” and ended up here…

    Anyhow, the observation that GB was quite Unix like and that many tasks were (seemingly) quite time consuming is true. However, the Unix-likeness was extended far further – as the simple text based interface made it easy to collect information and give commands, most (if not all) seasoned players used Unix shell scripts (utilizing awk, sed etc.) to issue command batches. In that way, it was quite easy to, e.g., modify 100s of certain ship type to higher specs or launch an attack to a system with 100s of missiles (or try to shoot down such saturation attack with a single laser equipped ship).

    There were also other external tools for, e.g., generating .ps file of the map of galaxy (it was 2D) for printing, collecting all kinds of statistics from your own planets for strategic planning etc.

    In hindsight, it might had been better to integrate such scripts to main game and to design user friendly interface so that also non-programmers could have benefit from them. However, at the time, such scripts were considered to be trade secretes that had potential to win or lose the game.

    Humm… now, as I try to recall those times, I remember that I had a specific cron script that collected and summarized the most important information right after each update and then sent it as a SMS message to my phone (that was yeaaaars before smartphones). So, I was able to find out if someone had launched an attack to my systems and if I should try to find a telnet connection somewhere asap…

    1. Kari Seppanen

      In one sense, GB was much more than the server code. For new comers it was very brutal, but I think that the real essence in the game was that who had the best scripts and the best strategy (having only one of those did not help much).

      Now, if someone would like to use some ideas from GB in new game development, I wonder if it could be possible to integrate some scripting features. I think that some ways to automate routine tasks in the game play could be quite interesting without turning the game into some kind of core wars. Of course, if large audience is sought, then programming skills cannot be required. On the other hand, just some simple weight tuning with a simple state machine would be quite boring?

  4. Zack (@zkline)


    Thanks for a retrospective on this game. It’s of interest to me primarily because as a totally blind player, the number of really deep strategy games I can play is unfortunately rather limited. I wasn’t into computers during the game’s heyday, but it’s oddly comforting to realize that if I had been I would have been able to enjoy it.

    I’m intrigued by both this game and the similar Empire, because they were entirely text-based and markedly more complicated than much else out there at the time. Do we know if there was any influence back and forth, or did two groups just decide to create really complicated 4X games independently? 🙂

    I’m rather sad there doesn’t seem to be a way to try this out anymore. I’ve downloaded some of the code from GitHub, but am not sure how to get it running with modern C++ compilers.

    1. Maury Markowitz Post author

      As far as I know, Empire was completely independant. It seems this was an idea whose time had come. I will do an article on Empire at some point.

      1. Zack (@zkline)

        Well, i managed to find a version of GB, calling itself 6.0C from an old SourceForge project. After fixing a trivial error in one of the C files, it compiles.

        I don’t know what I’m going to do with this, I’m not in a position to actually run a game—I wouldn’t know where to start. But this is weirdly cool all the same 🙂

  5. Scott Anderson

    Every once in a while I end up on some wiki thread or search result that leads me back to GB for nostalgia’s sake. This time it was learning that the “Ogg” from “Ogg Vorbis” originated from the term “ogging” in Netrek, which led me to early Internet games, which led me here again.

    One aspect of the game that isn’t mentioned here is the X-Windows extension to GBII that I authored. Visual maps, drag and drop civ/troop movement, macro buttons, and so on. I’m not sure how many people actually used it, but I had fun coding it in college (I really spent more time on GB and MUDs than I should have).

    Thanks for the nostalgia, and maybe someday there will be another public server up!


  6. SJohn

    Wow, there are still people interested in this game! Around 2003 I wrote a web-based Galactic Bloodshed play-a-like which I called Galatic Conquest which had none of the original code. It was based on a C-based CGI that connects by socket to a Perl server with most of the code. Due to network speed at the time I had to cram a lot of the javascript sector management code into the fewest number characters to make it fast enough. I did add in some management code like population auto-move and was working on fleet management. It also had stargates and graphics showing the movement of planets around stars and projected ship movement to intercept the movi8ng planets. I added in planet movements around stars, not in the original version I played and I still have the code. The only “bug” seemed to be that users would autoload all their civs into ships at the starbases and complain their civs were disappearing 🙂 The game takes up gobs of time for micromanagement. It would be possible to write web-based scripts to manage your empire if we got the game up again. The database is stored as text files “which could cause some corruption issues” and should be fully migrated mysql. There did not seem to be more than a few enthusiasts and none willing to support the project financially so moved on. Let me know if there is still some interest as I still run a legacy chat server at and could put up a game.


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